NÉOSPOROSE CANINE

Infection par le protozoaire Neospora caninum, dont l’hôte définitif est le chien (et d’autres carnivores, p. ex. coyote ; la présence de la maladie chez le renard n’est pas établie) et dont différentes espèces animales, notamment la vache, mais cependant pas l’être humain, peuvent être les hôtes intermédiaires. L’infection se propage principalement de manière verticale et peut provoquer des avortements et des lésions embryonnaires notamment chez le veau et plus rarement chez d’autres espèces animales. Des lésions neuromusculaires apparaissent en particulier chez le chiot et les veaux nouveau-nés.

Espèces touchées

Chien en tant qu’hôte définitif (et comme hôte intermédiaire); les hôtes intermédiaires sont notamment les bovins, plus rarement d’autres ruminants, les chevaux et d’autres espèces animales.

Agent infectieux Neospora caninum

Sporozoaire appartenant à la classe des coccidies (Apicomplexa) avec un cycle évolutif indirect facultatif à deux hôtes. Les hôtes peuvent s’infecter par voie orale avec des kystes tissulaires d’hôtes intermédiaires ou avec des oocystes sporulés provenant de crottes de chiens. Au stade prénatal, l’infection verticale est principalement due à la réactivation de parasites latents dans l’organisme de la mère qui sont ensuite transmis par voie trans-placentaire au foetus. Après multiplication et développement dans l’hôte intermédiaire, il peut y avoir formation de kystes tissulaires qui se situent principalement dans le cerveau. L’infection des hôtes définitifs – selon les connaissances actuelles – a lieu par ingestion des kystes tissulaires.

Clinique / pathologie

Les manifestations cliniques de la maladie sont observées principalement chez les chiots (syndrome neuromusculaire) et chez les vaches et génisses gestantes (avortement). La néosporose du chien se caractérise par une paralysie et une parésie ascendantes progressives (névrite radiculaire) des postérieurs; de la fièvre, une amygdalite, de la dyspnée, de la diarrhée, de l’ataxie, des tremblements, de l’hémiparésie, de l’hémianopsie. L’infection demeure néanmoins souvent asymptomatique chez de nombreux animaux. Chez les bovins, N. caninum joue un rôle important en tant que cause d’avortement et de mort de veaux d’origine infectieuse. Chez les veaux, les séquelles postnatales peuvent également être importantes. En ce qui concerne l’être humain, l’infection est inoffensive.

Répartition géographique : Mondiale

Épidémiologie

Le mode de transmission vertical est le plus fréquent chez les deux hôtes principaux (bovin, chien): de la mère gestante (primo-infection ou infection chronique latente) aux descendants (infection intra-utérine). Les mères peuvent transmettre le parasite plusieurs fois à l’occasion de différentes gestations, ce qui revient à dire qu’une immunité acquise ne protège pas de nouveaux avortements. Les (rares) primo-infections postnatales horizontales ont lieu par ingestion d’oocystes sporulés ou de tissus contenant des kystes.

DIAGNOSTIC :

Bovin

Suspicion en cas d’avortements fréquents et de naissances de veaux chétifs. Isolement de l’agent pathogène à partir du SNC des foetus avortés au moyen d’une PCR et/ou par histopathologie ou immu-nohistochimie .

Chien

Sérologie (augmentation du titre ou test d’avidité) ou isolement 2/2 de l’agent pathogène (liquide céphalo-rachidien, SNC) chez les animaux présentant des signes cliniques. Isolement d’oocystes dans les excréments des hôtes définitifs.

Diagnostic différentiel

Avortements d’une autre étiologie: notamment BVD, chlamydiose, brucellose, toxoplasmose. Neuropathies d’une autre étiologie: notamment toxoplasmose cérébrale, autres agents pathogènes neurotropes. Chien en qualité d’hôte définitif: mise en évidence d’oocystes de Hammondia heydorni et d’autres organismes « Neospora-like », et le cas échéant d’oocystes d’autres coccidies (ingérés par coprophagie et excrétés après passage de l’intestin).

Prophylaxie immunitaire

Il n’existe pas de vaccin permettant de prévenir la transmission verticale donc un avortement.

PRÉLÈVEMENTS

Hôtes intermédiaires : sérum, foetus avorté (notamment son cerveau), liquide céphalo-rachidien ou biopsie du SNC. Hôtes définitifs : crottes.

Critères de constat

Avortements avec mise en évidence de l’agent pathogène (PCR et/ou immunohistochimie spécifique). Chez les animaux malades: suspicion clinique ou sur la base des résultats de l’histologie, confirmée par la mise en évidence de l’agent pathogène ou par sérologie spécifique (cf. plus haut). Mise en évidence de l’agent pathogène (oocystes) chez les hôtes définitifs, chien et, le cas échéant, autres canidés (morphologie et biologie moléculaire).

Mesures

Épizootie à surveiller OFE, art. 291.

Contrôle des viandes

Appréciation selon les critères généraux (OHyAb, annexe 7). 08_2009

Source : La Néosporose


GDS38 Questions/réponse sur la Néosporose
 

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